Norges Bank

Working Paper

The Bias of the ECB Inflation Projections: A State-Dependent Analysis

Eleonora Granziera, Pirkka Jalasjoki and Maritta Paloviita
Working Paper


We test for state-dependent bias in the European Central Bank’s inflation projections. We show that the ECB tends to underpredict when the observed inflation rate at the time of forecasting is higher than an estimated threshold of 1.8%. The bias is most pronounced at intermediate forecasting horizons. This suggests that inflation is projected to revert towards the target too quickly. These results cannot be fully explained by the persistence embedded in the forecasting models nor by errors in the exogenous assumptions on interest rates, exchange rates or oil prices. The state-dependent bias may be consistent with the aim of managing inflation expectations, as published forecasts play a central role in the ECB’s monetary policy communication strategy.

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ISSN 1502-8143 (online)

Published 22 May 2024 09:00
Published 22 May 2024 09:00