Norges Bank

Working Paper

Human vs. machine: Disposition effect among algorithmic and human day traders

Karolis Liaudinskas
Working Paper


This paper studies whether and why algorithmic traders exhibit one of the most broadlydocumented behavioral puzzles – the disposition effect. We use trade data from the NASDAQ Copenhagen Stock Exchange merged with the weather data. We find that on average, the disposition effect for human traders is substantial and increases significantly on colder days, while for similarly-trading algorithms, it is insignificant and insensitive to the weather. This provides causal evidence of the link between human psychology and the disposition effect and suggests that algorithms can reduce psychology-related human errors. Considering the ongoing AI adoption, this may have broad implications.

Norges Bank’s Working Papers present research projects and reports that are generally not in their final form. Other analyses by Norges Bank’s economists are also included in the series. The views and conclusions in these documents are those of the authors.

Norges Bank’s Working Papers can also be found in Norges Bank's publication archive, RepEc and BIS Central Bank Research Hub

ISSN 1502-8143 (online)

Published 1 June 2022 16:16
Published 1 June 2022 16:16